The differents technique of printing

Intercosmografica takes you on a small journey through the various printing techniques that we have been using for over a century to develop our work.
The typographical printing technique is the mother of all the most modern technologies used to date in a print shop, this method of printing on paper is directly descended from the famous press press of Johann Gutenberg. 
First the relief printing matrices are prepared (relief), they can be formed by movable characters fused in lead, in lines of linotyoe or cliche.
The matrices are suitably inked by rollers, followed by a beating plane which presses the sheet previously interposed between the matrix and the plane itself.
Typographic printing is undoubtedly the technique closest to the ancient traditions, looking at the final print you can still see the signs of pressure on the paper, the color tone is very intense, creating a product that stands out among the mass.
The technique of offset printing.
Offset graphic art is a more recent typographic technology, it is based on the old lithography technique.
 The ink is transferred indirectly to the paper, the printing matrix, which is an aluminum sheet, inks a cylinder "lined" by a sheet of rubber which, coming into contact with the sheet of paper, impresses it.
The offset technology is suitable for extremely precise prints, therefore it is possible to print in four colors by composing images of excellent quality.
The offset, both for the speed of execution after setting the machine in the start-up phase, and for the economy on large volumes, is also the main technique of large print runs, all the newspapers, magazines and catalogs distributed come in 90% of cases printed in offset.
The technique of digital printing.
The ultimate goal of technology in the field of typography is certainly the digital impression.
Modern digital technology is the daughter of xerography, the technology consists of a short production path, a computer directly connected to the printer sends the data of what will be printed.
After a brief processing a laser beam is directed according to the pixel mosaic that has been sent to it, the laser beam impacts on a photosensitive roller (electron photoreceptor drum) which reacts by discharging where it is hit by light.
On the surface of the drum, static electricity attracts a pigmented powder called toner, which is immediately transferred onto the sheet of paper. The "dusty" sheet of toner will then pass in a preheated fuser roller at very high temperatures, the toner with the heat melting adhering permanently to the paper.
The main digital impression machines use 4 colors of toner, which would then be the same colors of the four-color offset (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) that diligently combined will produce all the shades of color we need. Nowadays, thanks to our Scodix technology, it is possible to replace traditional technologies for hot printing and embossed printing thanks to thick coatings and adherent foils using polymer, allowing to maintain a high quality but facing more convenient costs .
The technique of digital impression is the last typographic frontier, while the typography losing part of its charm, has become with digital technology a consumer product allowing to process short-run jobs while maintaining high quality "winking" also to the final consumer's wallet.
The technique of typographic relief printing and dry relief.
The technique of typographic relief printing and dry relief are both daughters of the same technological process.
To make a relief print and dry relief first you need to prepare a cliche with a convex side and a concave one that is "the negative" of half relief.
By overlaying the two plates and inserting the sheet between them, the typographic press will place a strong pressure that will impress the contoured relief on the paper.
In the case of dry printing the procedure is thus terminated, in the case instead of inked and relief printing it will be enough to have previously printed with ink our typographic composition.
Relief printing is a very laborious procedure, to make a "simple" business card our operator will have to work with great precision and skill even for many hours.
Certainly the great work behind it will be pleasantly rewarded by a typographic product of exquisite workmanship and the son of an ancient tradition that lasted over the centuries of typographic art.
The hot printing technique.
The hot printing technique is processed with a traditional letterpress printing machine that has been adequately modified for this advanced technique.
The hot technique is a direct coil impression technology, a contrast element present in the coil through strong pressure and heat is transferred onto the sheet of paper.
The pressure plane, previously heated to a temperature of at least 110 °, with a strong pressure literally "attack" the thermo-transferable element that we have previously chosen.
The printing matrix can be of several materials including steel, brass or magnesium.
The most characteristic colors for the thermo-transferable element of hot printing are the so-called "metal" among which the effect of gold, silver and copper stand out despite the fact that many different colors are available for hot printing.
Intercosmografica since 1889 operates in the printing industry, from traditional typography to the latest printing technologies, we always try to keep up with the times, offering various possibilities and printing and ennobling solutions we are able to satisfy even the requests of our most demanding partners.
 Contact us to receive a free estimate regarding your printed material in flat and in die, you will be enchanted by the world of Intercosmografica.
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